Peritoneal Mesothelioma : Causes ,Stages , Therapy and Prognosis

What’s peritoneal Mesothelioma?

Asbestos causes peritoneal Mesothelioma, a type of cancer. If you eat or breathe in asbestos fibers, they can get stuck in your stomach lining. The fibers could move to the abdomen lining through the digestive or lymphatic systems. But experts haven’t agreed on a single way that asbestos gets into the abdomen lining.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma is the second most common type of mesothelioma cancer. About 15–20 percent of all cases are diagnosed with this type.

In the United States, less than 1,000 people are diagnosed with it each year.

Common signs are pain and swelling in the abdomen, weight loss, and fluid buildup in the abdomen.

A series of tests, like imaging tests, blood tests, and biopsies, are used to make a diagnosis.

Surgery, heated chemotherapy, and immunotherapy are all ways to treat peritoneal Mesothelioma.

Depending on the person’s case, the prognosis for peritoneal Mesothelioma can range from two to six years of life.

Why does Mesothelioma happen?

Most cases of Mesothelioma are caused by exposure to asbestos. Asbestos is a group of minerals found naturally in rocks and soil. These minerals make long, thin fibers that are very strong. Asbestos fibers do not evaporate or dissolve in water. They can stand up to heat and fire and are hard for chemicals and bacteria to break down.

In the 20th century, asbestos was used in many consumer goods, car parts, and building materials. Scientists didn’t know how dangerous it was until later. Asbestos isn’t mined in the United States anymore, but some products are still made with it. Some older homes and buildings still have it.

Tiny asbestos fibers that are too small to see can get into the air when you work with asbestos materials. People who breathed in or ate asbestos fibers have gotten Mesothelioma and other diseases for a long time. However, not everyone who has been around asbestos will get Mesothelioma or other cancers. Ask your doctor if you should get regular checkups or tests for diseases caused by asbestos if you are worried.

Some things that can cause Mesothelioma are:

  • Having asbestos around at work.
  • Someone you live with works with asbestos.
  • Working or living in a building where asbestos-containing materials have been moved.
  • Living in a place where asbestos is found naturally or is mined or made.

What Does Mesothelioma Feel Like?

Mesothelioma of the pleura can lead to—

  • You feel pain in your chest, right under your ribs.
  • Coughing.
  • I can’t get enough air.
  • Lumps under your chest skin.
  • Tiredness.
  • You can’t say why someone loses weight.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma can cause—

  • An enlarged abdomen.
  • You have pain in your belly.
  • Nausea.
  • Tiredness.
  • You can’t say why someone loses weight.

Talk to your doctor if you have any of these signs. They might not be caused by cancer at all. However, it would be best if you saw a doctor to find out what’s causing them.

Stages of Peritoneal Mesothelioma

A doctor will also figure out the stage of peritoneal Mesothelioma when making a diagnosis. Even though there isn’t a transparent staging system for peritoneal malignant Mesothelioma, doctors can use relevant criteria to tell how far along the disease is. For instance, doctors may be able to tell if cancer has spread to other organs or lymph nodes.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma Staging by the Peritoneal Cancer Index

In some cases, doctors may use the Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI), which was made for abdomen cancers. With this method, the abdomen is divided into 13 different parts and scored on a scale from 0 to 3 based on whether or not there are tumors and how big they are.

The 13 sections are then added together to get an overall PCI score. The highest possible score is 39. Doctors say that the stages of peritoneal Mesothelioma are like the scores. A higher PCI score means that the abdominal Mesothelioma is in a more advanced stage.

Tumor Node Metastasis (TNM) System for Staging Peritoneal Mesothelioma:

The  TNM cancer staging system is usually used to stage pleural Mesothelioma, but it has been changed to work for peritoneal Mesothelioma. The TNM system for peritoneal Mesothelioma has been changed to include three parts:

T factor: This factor is meant to consider where the primary tumor is and how big it is. Doctors use the PCI score to measure this because peritoneal Mesothelioma often has a lot of tumors.

N factor: This is the number of lymph nodes that the tumor has spread to. Because lymph nodes are rarely involved, doctors give a score of N0 or N1 for this factor. So N0 means that cancer hasn’t spread to any lymph nodes, while N1 means it has.

M factor: This factor accounts for distant spread of mesothelioma. Patients get either an M0 or an M1 score. M0 means that cancer hasn’t spread to other parts of the body. M1 means that cancer has spread to faraway places.

Patients may fall into one of three stages based on these factors. Stage 3 is the most advanced in this system.

The Three Stages of Mesothelioma in the Abdomen Adapted TNM Staging

Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3
T factor: PCI up to 10
N factor: N0
M factor: M0
T factor: PCI of 11 to 30
N factor: N0
M factor: M0
T factor: PCI of 11 to 30
N factor: N0
M factor: M0

No matter which staging system doctors use, many factors affect prognosis. Patients can consult a mesothelioma doctor to determine the best treatment for their stage of peritoneal mesothelioma.

How is Mesothelioma found out?

Mesothelioma and other types of cancer can be hard to tell apart. So you might need a physical exam and other tests, like an X-ray or CT scan of your chest or a biopsy (removing a small piece of tissue to look at under a microscope).

How do you treat Mesothelioma?

The best way to treat Mesothelioma depends on where it is and if it has spread to other parts of the body. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy are all possible cancer treatments.

Surgery. An operation in which cancerous tissue is cut out.

Chemotherapy. Doctors use particular medicines to shrink or kill cancer. They can come in pills or injections, or sometimes both.

Therapy with radiation. Doctors kill cancer with high-energy rays that are similar to X-rays.

Immunotherapy. Doctors use particular medicines to help your immune system fight cancer.

Personalized medicine. Drugs that doctors use to stop cancer cells from growing and spreading. You can take pills or get medicine through your veins. Before this treatment is used, you will have tests to see if it is suitable for your type of cancer.

What is the outlook for people with peritoneal Mesothelioma? How long do they usually live?

Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma cancer has a better chance of being cured than other malignant mesothelioma types.

Depending on the person’s case, the prognosis for peritoneal Mesothelioma can range from two to six years of life. However, with improvements in treatment, more people live five years or longer.

CRS is an abbreviation for cytoreductive surgery, which is a way to remove tumor tissue through surgery.

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is what HIPEC stands for. It is a type of chemotherapy that is heated and given in the abdomen.

Patients with peritoneal Mesothelioma who were treated with CRS + HIPEC lived longer.

1-year survival 86 percent

2-year survival 77 percent

3-year survival 59 percent

5-year survival 59 percent

A patient’s prognosis can be affected by some things, such as:

  • Type of cell (histopathology)
  • Size of the tumor and stage of Mesothelioma
  • Who the patient is and how old they are

Most peritoneal mesotheliomas have cells that look like epithelial cells. It responds better to treatment, and people who get treatment can expect to live an average of 79 months longer.

Sarcomatoid cell type is found in a small number of people with peritoneal malignant Mesothelioma. With treatment, people with this type of cell and peritoneal Mesothelioma live an average of 10 months.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma: Frequently Asked Questions

Q: Is peritoneal Mesothelioma curable?

A : Peritoneal Mesothelioma can’t be cured. However, some treatments might make people live longer.

Q: How long do people who have peritoneal Mesothelioma live?

A : A person with peritoneal Mesothelioma has a two- to six-year life expectancy, depending on what stage it was in when it was found.

Q: How do people with peritoneal Mesothelioma feel?

A : Some of the most common signs of peritoneal Mesothelioma are a pain in the abdomen, swelling in the abdomen, loss of weight, fever, fluid in the peritoneal cavity, intestinal blockage, night sweats, and an inability to clot.

Q: Can the peritoneal Mesothelioma spread to the lungs?

A : Yes, the peritoneal Mesothelioma can spread to the lungs. This is known as metastasis.

Q: How is peritoneal Mesothelioma found?

A : Malignant peritoneal Mesothelioma can only be found for sure with a biopsy. However, other tests, such as imaging scans and blood tests, may be used to confirm that the lumps are tumors.

Q: What can cause peritoneal Mesothelioma?

A : When you eat asbestos fibers, you get peritoneal Mesothelioma.

Q: How quickly does peritoneal mesothelioma spread?

A : At an early stage, peritoneal Mesothelioma may appear as more than one tumor. But peritoneal Mesothelioma rarely spreads to lymph nodes or other parts of the body outside the abdomen.

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